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English Title: Education. A gender profile of the determinants and outcomes of schooling in the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Author/Creator: Ghali, M.
Type of publication: Other Publication
Bibliographic reference: Ghali, M. 1997, Education. A gender profile of the determinants and outcomes of schooling in the West Bank and Gaza Strip, Women’s Studies Program, Birzeit University
Abstract: This report is a part of the “Palestinian Women: A Status Report” published by the Women’s Studies Program at Birzeit University in ten chapters that bring together the large but uneven range of existing research, data and policy documents on Palestine and Palestinian women. Despite the impressive improvement in school enrolment over the past decades, gender roles and responsibilities have not changed to the extent as might be expected from the narrowed education gender gap. Women’s roles have expanded to some extent, to include paid work outside the household and a greater role in public life. However, these roles have been generally in addition to their reproductive role. Preliminary research indicates that students perceive education as a mechanism to prepare young women to care for their children and men folk rather than to engage in paid employment outside the home, suggesting that social attitudes regarding the purpose of schooling remain conservative. The purpose of this essay is to examine gender disaggregated data collected from the formal schooling sector and how gender trends in education reflect, reinforce or readjust gender asymmetries and identities in Palestinian society. Part 1 introduces the structure of the system and specifically the three education providers. Part 2 examines enrolment, repetition, drop-out rates, and academic achievement as measures of access and equity of education. Part 3 investigates in-school and out-of school factors which affect gendered identities. In-school factors comprise the academic and hidden curricula, streaming, fields of specialization and occupational decision-making, whilst out-of school factorsinclude the family and the labour market. This paper concludes that it is not simply about numerical equity. Enrolment parity at the basic level has been achieved and despite women’s improved access to secondary and higher education, there has not been a commensurate increase in Palestinian women’s participation in the labor force or a decline in the fertility rate. Although women comprise half the population, only the very small minority who participate in the labor force are considered productive. A woman who remains at home to care for her children is not considered productive in purely economic terms- that is she is not paid wages- although her domestic labor allows others in the household to do so, principally her spouse.
Original abstract of the author: No
Field of science: All/General
Relation with Gender and Science topics: Underlying Causes and effects
Geographical coverage: Palestine-administered areas
Time coverage: 1990s
Methodological approach: Conceptual
Compilation of statistics
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